Our theory for change

The DAPP programme is designed to be delivered through a comprehensive package of interventions across the waste management continuum. DAPP will seek to support and promote projects that fit within the DAPP programme framework as outlined in the table below.

Projects implemented within this framework should report into a shared monitoring, evaluation and reporting systems that is tracked through a public-private-citizen co-management forum.

Proposed programme framework with desirable interventions

Program Pillar

Possible Interventions

Awareness, education, and behaviour change communication

  • Peer education, community dialogues, youth clubs focusing on youth
  • Schools based co-curricular activities
  • Mass media
  • Citizen  social mobilisation #CBL/ DAPP
  • Social media campaigns/ Challenge social norms/
  • Challenge corporate norms/ retailer behaviours

Investigate and promote policy/ legal reform and economic instruments

  • Contribute to industry Extended Producer Responsibility plans and initiatives
  • Restrictions on non-recyclable plastics
  • Investigate deposit system plastic bottles & incentives for  environmentally friendly packaging
  • Fines for dumping and pollution. Increase law enforcement

Scale up and strengthen recycling, upcycling and beneficiation

  • Local enterprise development
  • Support businesses in commoditising  and creating value from their waste streams
  • Strengthen recycling cluster

Scale up pollution control activities

  • Traps & booms on waterways
  • Localised waste management solutions (eg serviced skips, containers)
  • River Care teams
  • Community-based collectors
  • Community pollution  monitors & monitoring system
  • Adopt a spot

Municipal service strengthening & expansion

  • Strengthen basic city cleansing function & collection  and separation systems  for domestic & commercial waste
  • Decentralised waste management solutions
  • Improve access to  well managed landfills
  • Optimise  municipal human resources for waste management

Research, monitoring & evaluation

  • Environmental audits and tracing
  • Assessment of pollution hotspots and corridors
  • Statistics and targeted research agenda
  • Routine data collection  and generation of dash boards


  • Joint municipal, civil society, private sector planning  and oversight forum
  • Joint reporting and dashboards
  • Operational level co-ordination

Technological innovation

  • Clean up equipment
  • Recycling equipment
  • Software  to support waste beneficiation
  • Professional skills sharing

Community systems strengthening

  • Foster improvement community participation in waste management and beneficiation
  • Empower communities to monitor pollution events
  • Provide areas-specific local waste management solutions

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